About the Authors.
About This Book.
1 An Overview of the Field of Learning Disabilities.
History of Learning Disabilities.
Primary Characteristics of Learning Disabilities.
Comorbid or Co-occurring Conditions.
Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Programs and Settings for the Learning Disabled.
Facts About Learning Disabilities.
List of Major Organizations for the Learning Disabled.
Periodicals on Learning Disabilities.
2 Research in the Field of Learning Disabilities.
Overview of the Brain, Biology, and Behavior.
Structural Brain Differences.
Biochemical Infl uences.
Research on Memory.
Research on Metacognition.
Research on Phonological Processing Problems.
Research on Maturation and Retention.
Research on Communication Problems.
Research on Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy.
Research on Teachers’ Perceptions.
Research on Social Competence and Social Skills Training.
3 Understanding the Laws.
Parents as Advocates.
Teacher Rights and Obligations.
Behavioral Goals and Behavioral Improvement Plans.
Student and Parental Rights Regarding Suspension or Expulsion.
4 Early Childhood Education for At-Risk Students.
Special Education Services from Birth Through Age Two.
Special Education Services for Children Ages Three Through Five.
Assessment of Young Children.
The Components of an Effective Early Childhood Education Program.
Maturation and “Readiness” for Kindergarten.
5 The Student Study Team Process.
The Case for Early Intervention.
Recognizing the Need.
Talking with Parents.
Parent and Student Preparation for the Student Study Team (SST).
Predictable Parental Feelings and Reactions.
Initiating a Request for a Student Study Meeting.
The Student Study Team Process.
The Roles of the SST Members.
Digital Classroom Accommodations.
6 Formal Assessment and Identification of the Student with Learning Disabilities.
The Multidisciplinary Team Process.
Roles of the Members of the Multidisciplinary Team.
Guidelines for Assessment.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ).
Commonly Used Tests.
Classroom and Playground Observations.
7 Planning for the Student with Learning Disabilities.
The Discrepancy Model.
Assessment Scores and Their Implication for Learning.
Eligible or Not Eligible? Developing the Individual Education Plan (IEP).
Choosing the Appropriate Educational Setting (“Least Restrictive Environment”).
Determining the Number of Hours.
Writing Appropriate, Measurable Objectives.
The Purpose of Goals.
Reviews of the IEP.
The Annual Review.
The Triennial Review.
8 Classroom Management for Teachers.
Creating an Attractive and Useful Classroom.
Planning the First Week’s Activities.
Behavioral Management Considerations.
Settling Students After a Recess.
Projecting a Positive Feeling.
Finding Better Ways to Talk to Students.
Keep the Environment Consistent and Structured.
Help Students Succeed.
Use Rewards, Contracts, Tokens, and Reinforcers.
“Ball in Your Court” Technique.
Four Types of Challenging Students.
Using the Classroom Aide Effectively.
Twenty Tips for Successful Classroom Management.
Sample Approaches to Handling Inappropriate Behaviors.
9 Academic Management Considerations.
Curriculum, Setting, and Students’ Needs.
Getting to Know Your Students’ Academic Needs.
Quickly Through Informal Testing.
Goal Setting and Effective Lesson Design.
Planning the School Day.
Planning for Flexibility.
Scheduling and Pacing.
Using a Variety of Activities.
Allowing Students Some Choice in Assignments and Rewards.
Transforming Passive Students into Participatory Students.
Overcoming Failure Syndrome.
Planning Cooperative Learning Tasks.
Suggestions for Maximizing Educational Results.
Improving Lesson Results Through Feedback.
Improving Learning Through Specific Teaching Techniques.
Tests That Teach.
Story Mapping, Advanced Organizers, and Webs.
Use of Higher-Level Thinking Activities.
Issues of Grading and Evaluation.
Tips for Academic Management.
10 Interventions for Specific Problems.
Visual Perceptual Deficits.
Auditory Processing Deficits.
Spatial Awareness Deficits.
Students with Poor Work Habits.
Interventions for Other Common LD Classroom Problems.
Students with Poor Social Relationships or Behaviors.
Students with Dyslexia
Sample History Assignment.
Students with ADD or ADHD.
Medical Treatment of ADD and ADHD.
Behavioral Considerations for Students with ADD or ADHD.
Tips for Classroom Teachers.
11 Reading and the Student with Learning Disabilities.
Who Will Have Trouble Learning to Read?
Elements of a Balanced Literacy Program.
Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 1: Kindergarten–Grade 1.
Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 2: Kindergarten–Grade 1.
Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 3: Grades 1–2(Instructional Level).
Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 4: Any Grade to High School.
A Step-by-Step Guide for Teaching Reading to Students with Learning Disabilities.
Letter Recognition and Sound Knowledge.
Working with the Nonreader.
Working with the Emergent Reader.
Materials for Beginning and Emergent Readers.
Working with the Guided Reader.
Tips for Teaching Reading.
12 Writing, Spelling, and Speaking.
Teaching the Mechanics of Writing.
Sample Interactive Writing Lesson (Instructional Level 1.3).
Sample Writing Lesson (Instructional Level 2.5).
Spelling for Young Students with Learning Disabilities.
Speaking Activities for Young Students with Learning Disabilities.
Handwriting Skills for Older Students with Learning Disabilities.
The Mechanics of Writing for Older Students with Learning Disabilities.
E-mails and Digital Communication.
Spelling Activities for Older Students with Learning Disabilities.
Speaking Opportunities for Older Students with Learning Disabilities.
Sample Lesson: Recognizing Nouns.
Sample Lesson: Recognizing Verbs.
Title of My Story.
13 Teaching Mathematically Challenged Students.
Diagnosing a Student’s Diffi culties.
Levels of Understanding: Concrete, Representational, and Abstract.
Incorporating Reading into the Math Curriculum.
Teaching Specific Skills
Counting Symbols and One-to-One Correspondence
Counting and Understanding the Numbers 0–100.
Recognizing and Counting Coins.
Place Value: Ones and Tens Place.
Counting by Fives.
Time—by the Hour.
Time—by Hour and Minute.
Doing and Undoing: Plus and Minus.
Addition and Regrouping.
More and Less.
Simple Story Problems.
Subtraction With and Without Regrouping.
Rounding Numbers to the Nearest 10 or Nearest 100.
Recognizing and Spelling Number Words.
Place Value—Through Thousands.
Simple Multiplication Techniques.
Simple Division Techniques.
Doing and Undoing (Multiplication and Division).
More Complex Story Problems.
More Complex Division.
Relating Fractions to Decimals.
14 Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities.
Understanding the Changing Needs of the Adolescent.
Efforts to Engage the Junior High Student in the Educational Process.
Departmentalization (School Within a School).
Personal Efforts of Individual Teachers.
Curriculum for the Junior High School.
Strategies to Increase Metacognition and Learning.
The Art of Counseling Adolescent Students.
Teaching Students to Be Their Own Advocates.
Understanding the Needs of the High School Student with Learning Disabilities.
Continuation Schools and Independent Study Programs.
Life and Social Skills.
Understanding the Needs of the Young Adult with Learning Disabilities.
Services Available to Students Going to College.
Vocational Rehabilitation Services for the Learning Disabled.
Adult Education Opportunities.
15 The Role of the Family.
The Role of Parents—as Parents.
The Home Environment.
Providing Worthwhile Activities.
The Role of Parents—as Teachers.
Supervision of Homework.
Helping at School.
The Role of Parents—as Advocates.
Tips for Helping Your Child.
16 Education in the New Millennium.
Increased Use of Technology.
Teacher Preparation Trends and Issues.
Professional Salaries and Working Conditions.